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Why Foreign Missions? 24: The Good News of Jesus' Suffering, Death, Resurrection, and Exaltation According to the Scriptures

Why Foreign Missions? 24: The Good News of Jesus' Suffering, Death, Resurrection, and Exaltation According to the Scriptures

[The studies on this blog under the title 'Why Foreign Missions?' explore the meaning of the 'Gospel' in the New Testament (and therefore for Christians).  The present study explores how the Gospel writers, Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John, quoted and alluded to the Old Testament in their renderings of Jesus suffering, death, resurrection, and exaltation--the story of the Gospel, the Good News of what Jesus has accomplished for us.  This Gospel was a fulfillment of the Old Testament.]

Introduction:

The Gospel proclaimed by the early Church involved telling the good news of Jesus Christ, especially the passion (suffering and death), resurrection, and exaltation of Jesus.  This news, the early Church maintained, was a fulfilment of the Scriptures.  As Paul says,

For I handed on to you as of first importance what I in turn had received: that Christ died for our sins in accordance with the scriptures,  4 and that he was buried, and that he was raised on the third day in accordance with the scriptures… (1 Cor. 15.3-4).

Similarly, Luke records Jesus explaining to the despondent disciples on the road to Emmaus that the Messiah had to suffer (Lk. 24.25-27):

25 Then he said to them, "Oh, how foolish you are, and how slow of heart to believe all that the prophets have declared!  26 Was it not necessary that the Messiah should suffer these things and then enter into his glory?"  27 Then beginning with Moses and all the prophets, he interpreted to them the things about himself in all the scriptures.

Thus, central to the Gospel message itself is both the story of Jesus’ suffering, death, resurrection, and exaltation[1] of Jesus and the conviction that these events took place according to the Scripture.[2]  All four Gospel writers are convinced of this, as is Paul.  What follows is the evidence from the Gospels of the conviction that Jesus’ suffering, death, resurrection, and exaltation took place in accordance with Scripture. In fact, a video of the actual passion, death, and resurrection of Jesus would, to a significant degree, fail to communicate the theological message of these events.  By giving us the lenses of Old Testament texts to ‘see’ these events, the Gospel writers show us how to interpret them correctly.  This study is the basis for further research in Biblical theology on the issue of the Scriptural (Old Testament) basis for the events of the Gospel in other New Testament writers, particularly Paul (since he has written so much and since he is likely our earliest source for much of the early Church’s theology).

Collecting quotes and allusions to the Old Testament in the passion narratives of our four, canonical Gospels is a somewhat challenging task both because some allusions are uncertain and because there are many intentional references.[3]  The evidence presented here is intended to be a starting point for further study, and the reader needs to explore first whether a quote or allusion to the Old Testament is indeed in view and what further might be said about such a reference. How might one use this material to develop a Biblical theology of the passion, resurrection and exaltation of Jesus?  For example, one might explore whether the allusion is only to those words or the verse, or whether a reference to the larger context of an Old Testament passage is in view.  One might also ask what quotes from and allusions to so many lament psalms means for understanding the Gospel of Jesus or what quotes from Is. 40ff mean for the early Church’s theology in general.  Is it significant to find references in the Pentateuch, the Prophets, and the Writings—the three collections of literature in the Old Testament--informing our understanding of the Gospel events?  Apart from specific texts, Old Testament narratives such as the Exodus and return from Exile are significant for understanding Jesus’ passion and resurrection.  A shorter narrative parallel of interest is David’s flight from Absalom and Jesus’ agony on the Mt. of Olives (presented separately, below).  Thus, the study of the use of the Old Testament in telling the Gospel needs to examine both texts and narratives of the Old Testament.

Also, in the chart below, some attention might be paid to Synoptic relationships while working towards describing the distinct theologies of Mark, Matthew, and Luke.  Where is Mark responsible for the Old Testament references, and where are Matthew and/or Luke following him or developing their own references?  Further, note that one must include the book of Acts when discussing Luke's theology.  Finally, the question of the relationship between John and the Synoptics needs consideration here: where does John agree with the Synoptics in a textual or narrative reference to the Old Testament in his passion and resurrection narrative?


Quotes or Allusions to the Old Testament in the

Gospels’ Passion, Resurrection, and Exaltation Narratives


Old Testament

Matthew

Mark

Luke

John
Nations Against God’s Anointed
Psalm 2:1-2 1Why do the nations conspire, and the peoples plot in vain?  2 The kings of the earth set themselves, and the rulers take counsel together, against the LORD and his anointed, saying,


Acts 4:25-28   25 it is you who said by the Holy Spirit through our ancestor David, your servant: 'Why did the Gentiles rage, and the peoples imagine vain things?  26 The kings of the earth took their stand, and the rulers have gathered together against the Lord and against his Messiah.'  27 For in this city, in fact, both Herod and Pontius Pilate, with the Gentiles and the peoples of Israel, gathered together against your holy servant Jesus, whom you anointed,  28 to do whatever your hand and your plan had predestined to take place.

Resurrection
Psalm 2:7   I will tell of the decree of the LORD: He said to me, "You are my son; today I have begotten you.
Isaiah 55:3  Incline your ear, and come to me; listen, so that you may live. I will make with you an everlasting covenant, my steadfast, sure love for David. [Acts 13.34 takes this as a promise to an individual, who must therefore live forever.]
Psalm 16:10 For you do not give me up to Sheol, or let your faithful one see the Pit.


Acts 13:33-35  33 he has fulfilled for us, their children, by raising Jesus; as also it is written in the second psalm, 'You are my Son; today I have begotten you.'  34 As to his raising him from the dead, no more to return to corruption, he has spoken in this way, 'I will give you the holy promises made to David.'  35 Therefore he has also said in another psalm, 'You will not let your Holy One experience corruption.'


Agony
Psalm 6:3-4   3 My soul also is struck with terror, while you, O LORD-- how long?  4 Turn, O LORD, save my life; deliver me for the sake of your steadfast love.
Psalm 31:10   For my life is spent with sorrow, and my years with sighing; my strength fails because of my misery, and my bones waste away.
Psalm 42:5-6   5 Why are you cast down, O my soul, and why are you disquieted within me? Hope in God; for I shall again praise him, my help  6 and my God. My soul is cast down within me; therefore I remember you from the land of Jordan and of Hermon, from Mount Mizar.
Compare Sirach 51:1-12



John 12:27 "Now my soul is troubled. And what should I say-- 'Father, save me from this hour'? No, it is for this reason that I have come to this hour.
The Cup
Psalm 16:5, 7, 10  5 The LORD is my chosen portion and my cup; you hold my lot….7 I bless the LORD who gives me counsel; in the night also my heart instructs me. … 10 For you do not give me up to Sheol, or let your faithful one see the Pit.
Matthew 26:39  And going a little farther, he threw himself on the ground and prayed, "My Father, if it is possible, let this cup pass from me; yet not what I want but what you want."
Cf. Mt. 16.18; Acts 2.27, 31; 13.35 (above)
Mark 14:36   He said, "Abba, Father, for you all things are possible; remove this cup from me; yet, not what I want, but what you want."
Luke 22:42 "Father, if you are willing, remove this cup from me; yet, not my will but yours be done."

Resurrection
Psalm 16:8-11 8 I keep the LORD always before me; because he is at my right hand, I shall not be moved. 9 Therefore my heart is glad, and my soul rejoices; my body also rests secure. 10 For you do not give me up to Sheol, or let your faithful one [LXX: ton hosion sou] see the Pit [LXX: diaphthoran, corruption] 11 You show me the path of life. In your presence there is fullness of joy; in your right hand are pleasures forevermore.


Acts 2:24-28  24 But God raised him up, having freed him from death, because it was impossible for him to be held in its power. 25 For David says concerning him, 'I saw the Lord always before me, for he is at my right hand so that I will not be shaken;  26 therefore my heart was glad, and my tongue rejoiced; moreover my flesh will live in hope.  27 For you will not abandon my soul to Hades, or let your Holy One experience corruption.  28 You have made known to me the ways of life; you will make me full of gladness with your presence.'
Acts 2:31   31 Foreseeing this, David spoke of the resurrection of the Messiah, saying, 'He was not abandoned to Hades, nor did his flesh experience corruption.'

Rock, Death, Salvation
Psalm 18:2-5   2 The LORD is my rock, my fortress, and my deliverer, my God, my rock in whom I take refuge, my shield, and the horn of my salvation, my stronghold.  3 I call upon the LORD, who is worthy to be praised, so I shall be saved from my enemies.  4 The cords of death encompassed me; the torrents of perdition assailed me;  5 the cords of Sheol entangled me; the snares of death confronted me.
Psalm 18:31   31 For who is God except the LORD? And who is a rock besides our God?—
Psalm 18:46  46 The LORD lives! Blessed be my rock, and exalted be the God of my salvation,
Matthew 16:18   18 And I tell you, you are Peter, and on this rock I will build my church, and the gates of Hades will not prevail against it.






Distress, Temple
Psalm 18:6  6 In my distress I called upon the LORD; to my God I cried for help. From his temple he heard my voice, and my cry to him reached his ears.
Matthew 27:50-51  50 Then Jesus cried again with a loud voice and breathed his last.  51 At that moment the curtain of the temple was torn in two, from top to bottom. The earth shook, and the rocks were split.

Mark 15.37-38

37 Then Jesus gave a loud cry and breathed his last.  38 And the curtain of the temple was torn in two, from top to bottom.
Luke 23:45   45 while the sun's light failed; and the curtain of the temple was torn in two.


Earthquake
Ps. 18.7-16: theophany
Psalm 18:7 Then the earth reeled and rocked; the foundations also of the mountains trembled and quaked, because he was angry.
Ezekiel 37:12-13  Therefore prophesy, and say to them, Thus says the Lord GOD: I am going to open your graves, and bring you up from your graves, O my people; and I will bring you back to the land of Israel.  13 And you shall know that I am the LORD, when I open your graves, and bring you up from your graves, O my people.
Joel 2:10 The earth quakes before them, the heavens tremble. The sun and the moon are darkened, and the stars withdraw their shining.
Matthew 27:51  The earth shook, and the rocks were split.
Matthew 27:54   54 Now when the centurion and those with him, who were keeping watch over Jesus, saw the earthquake and what took place, they were terrified and said, "Truly this man was God's Son!"






Darkness
Psalm 18:11  He made darkness his covering around him, his canopy thick clouds dark with water.
Amos 8:9-10  On that day, says the Lord GOD, I will make the sun go down at noon, and darken the earth in broad daylight.  10 I will turn your feasts into mourning, and all your songs into lamentation; I will bring sackcloth on all loins, and baldness on every head; I will make it like the mourning for an only son, and the end of it like a bitter day.
Joel 2:2  [The day of the LORD…] a day of darkness and gloom, a day of clouds and thick darkness!
Joel 2:10 The earth quakes before them, the heavens tremble. The sun and the moon are darkened, and the stars withdraw their shining.
Joel 2:31 The sun shall be turned to darkness, and the moon to blood, before the great and terrible day of the LORD comes.
Matthew 27.45 Now from the sixth hour darkness fell upon all the land until the ninth hour
Mark 15.33 When the sixth hour came, darkness fell over the whole land until the ninth hour.

Luke 23.44 It was now about the sixth hour, and darkness fell over the whole land until the ninth hour, 45 because the sun was obscured; and the veil of the temple was torn in two.


Forsaken
Psalm 22:1  My God, my God, why have you forsaken me? Why are you so far from helping me, from the words of my groaning?

R. Bauckham argues, Jesus’ cry of dereliction from Ps. 22 on the cross represents Jesus’ identity with Godforsaken Israel (cf. Is. 49.14; cf. 40.27).  God’s response is that He cannot forsake them (Is. 49.15-18; 41.17; 42.16; 54.7) (see Jesus and the God of Israel, p. 260).
Matthew 27:46  46 And about three o'clock Jesus cried with a loud voice, "Eli, Eli, lema sabachthani?" that is, "My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?"
Mark 15:34   34 At three o'clock Jesus cried out with a loud voice, "Eloi, Eloi, lema sabachthani?" which means, "My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?"




Mocking, Taunting
Psalm 22:7a  All who see me mock at me;

Ps. 22.7b … they make mouths at me, they shake their heads;

Psalm 42:10  10 As with a deadly wound in my body, my adversaries taunt me, while they say to me continually, "Where is your God?"

Psalm 109:25   25 I am an object of scorn to my accusers; when they see me, they shake their heads.
Matthew 27:42-44  42 "He saved others; he cannot save himself. He is the King of Israel; let him come down from the cross now, and we will believe in him.  43 He trusts in God; let God deliver him now, if he wants to; for he said, 'I am God's Son.'"  44 The bandits who were crucified with him also taunted him in the same way.
Matthew 27:39   39 Those who passed by derided him, shaking their heads
Mark 15:29-32   29 Those who passed by derided him, shaking their heads and saying, "Aha! You who would destroy the temple and build it in three days,  30 save yourself, and come down from the cross!"  31 In the same way the chief priests, along with the scribes, were also mocking him among themselves and saying, "He saved others; he cannot save himself.  32 Let the Messiah, the King of Israel, come down from the cross now, so that we may see and believe." Those who were crucified with him also taunted him.
Luke 23:11 Even Herod with his soldiers treated him with contempt and mocked him; then he put an elegant robe on him, and sent him back to Pilate.

Luke 23:35-39   35 And the people stood by, watching; but the leaders scoffed at him, saying, "He saved others; let him save himself if he is the Messiah of God, his chosen one!"  36 The soldiers also mocked him, coming up and offering him sour wine,  37 and saying, "If you are the King of the Jews, save yourself!"  38 There was also an inscription over him, "This is the King of the Jews."  39 One of the criminals who were hanged there kept deriding him and saying, "Are you not the Messiah? Save yourself and us!"


No Deliverance
Psalm 22:8 "Commit your cause to the LORD; let him deliver-- let him rescue the one in whom he delights!"

Psalm 10:11  They think in their heart, "God has forgotten, he has hidden his face, he will never see it."
Matthew 27:40  40 and saying, "You who would destroy the temple and build it in three days, save yourself! If you are the Son of God, come down from the cross."
Matthew 27:43  43 He trusts in God; let God deliver him now, if he wants to; for he said, 'I am God's Son.'"
Mark 15:30   30 save yourself, and come down from the cross!"


Thirst
Psalm 22:15 my mouth is dried up like a potsherd, and my tongue sticks to my jaws; you lay me in the dust of death.
Psalm 69:3 I am weary with my crying; my throat is parched. My eyes grow dim with waiting for my God.



John 19:28   28 After this, when Jesus knew that all was now finished, he said (in order to fulfill the scripture), "I am thirsty."
Those Crucified With Jesus

Psalm 22:16 a, b  16 For dogs are all around me; a company of evildoers (poneroumenoi) encircles me….

Matthew 27:38  8 Then two bandits were crucified with him, one on his right and one on his left.
Mark 15:27  27 And with him they crucified two bandits, one on his right and one on his left.
Luke 23:33  3 When they came to the place that is called The Skull, they crucified Jesus there with the criminals (kakourgoi), one on his right and one on his left.

Pierced

NIV Psalm 22:16 Dogs have surrounded me; a band of evil men has encircled me, they have pierced my hands and my feet. [NRSV: my hands and feet have shriveled.  Note: MT has ‘like a lion’ instead of ‘they have pierced,’ in Qurman and LXX]

[Cf. Isaiah 53:5 But he was wounded for our transgressions, crushed for our iniquities; upon him was the punishment that made us whole, and by his bruises we are healed.]

Zechariah 12:10 And I will pour out a spirit of compassion and supplication on the house of David and the inhabitants of Jerusalem, so that, when they look on the one whom they have pierced, they shall mourn for him, as one mourns for an only child, and weep bitterly over him, as one weeps over a firstborn.


Luke 24:39-40  39 Look at my hands and my feet; see that it is I myself. Touch me and see; for a ghost does not have flesh and bones as you see that I have."  40 And when he had said this, he showed them his hands and his feet.
John 19:37  37 And again another passage of scripture says, "They will look on [eivj] the one whom they have pierced."
John 20:25   25 So the other disciples told him, "We have seen the Lord." But he said to them, "Unless I see the mark of the nails in his hands, and put my finger in the mark of the nails and my hand in his side, I will not believe."
Dividing Clothes
Psalm 22:18  they divide my clothes among themselves, and for my clothing they cast lots.
Matthew 27:35   35 And when they had crucified him, they divided his clothes among themselves by casting lots;
Mark 15:24   24 And they crucified him, and divided his clothes among them, casting lots to decide what each should take.
Luke 23:34   34 Then Jesus said, "Father, forgive them; for they do not know what they are doing." And they cast lots to divide his clothing.
John 19:23-24  23 When the soldiers had crucified Jesus, they took his clothes and divided them into four parts, one for each soldier. They also took his tunic; now the tunic was seamless, woven in one piece from the top.  24 So they said to one another, "Let us not tear it, but cast lots for it to see who will get it." This was to fulfill what the scripture says, "They divided my clothes among themselves, and for my clothing they cast lots."
Commending of Righteous Sufferer’s Spirit
[Relate to Psalms of the righteous sufferer trusting in God]
Psalm 22:24 For he did not despise or abhor the affliction of the afflicted; he did not hide his face from me, but heard when I cried to him.

Psalm 10:14  But you do see! Indeed you note trouble and grief, that you may take it into your hands; the helpless commit themselves to you; you have been the helper of the orphan.

Psalm 31:5  Into your hand I commit my spirit; you have redeemed me, O LORD, faithful God.


Luke 23:45-46   45 while the sun's light failed; and the curtain of the temple was torn in two.  46 Then Jesus, crying with a loud voice, said, "Father, into your hands I commend my spirit." Having said this, he breathed his last.

Nations Acknowledge LORD as king
Psalm 22:27-28   27 All the ends of the earth shall remember and turn to the LORD, and all the families of the nations shall worship before you.  28 For kingship belongs to the LORD, and he rules over the nations.
Matthew 27:54  When the centurion and those who were with him, keeping watch over Jesus, saw the earthquake and what took place, they were filled with awe and said, "Truly this was the Son of God!"
Mark 15:39 And when the centurion, who stood facing him, saw that in this way he breathed his last, he said, "Truly this man was the Son of God!"
Luke 23:47  Now when the centurion saw what had taken place, he praised God, saying, "Certainly this man was innocent!"

Commending of Righteous’ Sufferer’s Spirit
[Already noted above, Pss. 10, 22]
Psalm 31:5  Into your hand I commit my spirit; you have redeemed me, O LORD, faithful God.




Luke 23:46 Then Jesus, crying with a loud voice, said, "Father, into your hands I commend my spirit." Having said this, he breathed his last.


Scheming
Psalm 31:13 For I hear the whispering of many-- terror all around!—as they scheme together against me, as they plot to take my life.

Psalm 35:11  Malicious witnesses rise up; they ask me about things I do not know.
Psalm 35:21  They open wide their mouths against me; they say, "Aha, Aha, our eyes have seen it."
[Psalm 27:12  12 Do not give me up to the will of my adversaries, for false witnesses have risen against me, and they are breathing out violence.]
[Psalm 109:2-3   2 For wicked and deceitful mouths are opened against me, speaking against me with lying tongues.  3 They beset me with words of hate, and attack me without cause.]
Psalm 35:19  19 Do not let my treacherous enemies rejoice over me, or those who hate me without cause wink the eye.
Matthew 26:3-4   3 Then the chief priests and the elders of the people gathered in the palace of the high priest, who was called Caiaphas,  4 and they conspired to arrest Jesus by stealth and kill him.
Matthew 26:59-61   59 Now the chief priests and the whole council were looking for false testimony against Jesus so that they might put him to death,  60 but they found none, though many false witnesses came forward. At last two came forward  61 and said, "This fellow said, 'I am able to destroy the temple of God and to build it in three days.'"
Mark 14:57  57 Some stood up and gave false testimony against him, saying,

Mark 15:29-30   29 Those who passed by derided him, shaking their heads and saying, "Aha! You who would destroy the temple and build it in three days,  30 save yourself, and come down from the cross!"


















John 15:25  It was to fulfill the word that is written in their law, 'They hated me without a cause.'
No Bones Broken
Psalm 34:20  He keeps all their bones; not one of them will be broken.
Exodus 12:46   46 It [Passover Lamb] shall be eaten in one house; you shall not take any of the animal outside the house, and you shall not break any of its bones.
Numbers 9:12 They shall leave none of it until morning, nor break a bone of it; according to all the statute for the passover they shall keep it.



John 19:36  These things occurred so that the scripture might be fulfilled, "None of his bones shall be broken."
Friends Aloof
Psalm 38:11 My friends and companions stand aloof from my affliction, and my neighbors stand far off.







Matthew 27:55-56   55 Many women were also there, looking on from a distance; they had followed Jesus from Galilee and had provided for him.  56 Among them were Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James and Joseph, and the mother of the sons of Zebedee.
Mark 15:40-41   40 There were also women looking on from a distance; among them were Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James the younger and of Joses, and Salome.  41 These used to follow him and provided for him when he was in Galilee; and there were many other women who had come up with him to Jerusalem.
Luke 23:49   49 But all his acquaintances, including the women who had followed him from Galilee, stood at a distance, watching these things.

Hyssop
Exodus 12:21-22  Then Moses called all the elders of Israel and said to them, "Go, select lambs for your families, and slaughter the passover lamb.  22 Take a bunch of hyssop, dip it in the blood that is in the basin,



John 19:28-29   28 After this, when Jesus knew that all was now finished, he said (in order to fulfill the scripture), "I am thirsty." 29 A jar full of sour wine was standing there. So they put a sponge full of the wine on a branch of hyssop and held it to his mouth.
Grief
Psalm 42:5-6  5 Why are you cast down, O my soul, and why are you disquieted within me? Hope in God; for I shall again praise him, my help  6 and my God. My soul is cast down [peri,lupoj] within me; therefore I remember you from the land of Jordan and of Hermon, from Mount Mizar…. Psalm 42:11  Why are you cast down [peri,lupoj], O my soul, and why are you disquieted within me? Hope in God; for I shall again praise him, my help and my God.
Psalm 43:5  Why are you cast down [peri,lupoj], O my soul, and why are you disquieted within me? Hope in God; for I shall again praise him, my help and my God.
Psalm 109:22 For I am poor and needy, and my heart is pierced (tarassein) within me.
Gethsemane: Mt. 26.36-46
Matthew 26:38 Then he said to them, "I am [literally, ‘my soul is--evstin h` yuch, mou] deeply grieved [peri,lupoj], even to death; remain here, and stay awake with me."
Gethsemane: Mk. 14.32-42
Mark 14:34  34 And he said to them, "I am deeply grieved [peri,lupo,j], even to death; remain here, and keep awake."
Mt. of Olives: Lk. 22.39-46
John 12:27 "Now my soul is troubled…. (tarassein)
Betrayal by a Friend [Judas]
Psalm 41:9  Even my bosom friend in whom I trusted, who ate of my bread, has lifted the heel against me.
Cf. Ps. 55:12-14 [See more regarding Acts 1:17, 20, below]
Matthew 26.18 As they were reclining at the table and eating, Jesus said, "Truly I say to you that one of you will betray Me-- one who is eating with Me."

Mark 14:18  And when they had taken their places and were eating, Jesus said, "Truly I tell you, one of you will betray me, one who is eating with me."
Acts 1:17  for he was numbered among us and was allotted his share in this ministry."
John 13:18 I am not speaking of all of you; I know whom I have chosen. But it is to fulfill the scripture, 'The one who ate my bread has lifted his heel against me.'
Drinking God’s wrath
Psalm 60:3 You have made your people suffer hard things; you have given us wine to drink that made us reel.
Psalm 75:8  8 For in the hand of the LORD there is a cup with foaming wine, well mixed; he will pour a draught from it, and all the wicked of the earth shall drain it down to the dregs.
Isaiah 29:9   9 Stupefy yourselves and be in a stupor, blind yourselves and be blind! Be drunk, but not from wine; stagger, but not from strong drink!
Isaiah 51:17, 22  17 Rouse yourself, rouse yourself! Stand up, O Jerusalem, you who have drunk at the hand of the LORD the cup of his wrath, who have drunk to the dregs the bowl of staggering….  22 Thus says your Sovereign, the LORD, your God who pleads the cause of his people: See, I have taken from your hand the cup of staggering; you shall drink no more from the bowl of my wrath.
Jeremiah 25:15-18, 28   15 For thus the LORD, the God of Israel, said to me: Take from my hand this cup of the wine of wrath, and make all the nations to whom I send you drink it.  16 They shall drink and stagger and go out of their minds because of the sword that I am sending among them.  17 So I took the cup from the LORD's hand, and made all the nations to whom the LORD sent me drink it:  18 Jerusalem and the towns of Judah, its kings and officials, to make them a desolation and a waste, an object of hissing and of cursing, as they are today;… 28 And if they refuse to accept the cup from your hand to drink, then you shall say to them: Thus says the LORD of hosts: You must drink!
Jeremiah 49:12  12 For thus says the LORD: If those who do not deserve to drink the cup still have to drink it, shall you [Edom] be the one to go unpunished? You shall not go unpunished; you must drink it.
Ezekiel 23:31-34  31 You have gone the way of your sister; therefore I will give her cup into your hand.  32 Thus says the Lord GOD: You shall drink your sister's cup, deep and wide; you shall be scorned and derided, it holds so much.  33 You shall be filled with drunkenness and sorrow. A cup of horror and desolation is the cup of your sister Samaria;  34 you shall drink it and drain it out, and gnaw its sherds, and tear out your breasts; for I have spoken, says the Lord GOD.
Habakkuk 2:16  16 You will be sated with contempt instead of glory. Drink, you yourself, and stagger! The cup in the LORD's right hand will come around to you, and shame will come upon your glory!
Zechariah 12:2  2 See, I am about to make Jerusalem a cup of reeling for all the surrounding peoples; it will be against Judah also in the siege against Jerusalem.
Matthew 20:22-23  But Jesus answered, "You do not know what you are asking. Are you able to drink the cup that I am about to drink?" They said to him, "We are able."  23 He said to them, "You will indeed drink my cup, but to sit at my right hand and at my left, this is not mine to grant, but it is for those for whom it has been prepared by my Father."
Matthew 26:39  39 And going a little farther, he threw himself on the ground and prayed, "My Father, if it is possible, let this cup pass from me; yet not what I want but what you want."
Mark 10:38-40  But Jesus said to them, "You do not know what you are asking. Are you able to drink the cup that I drink, or be baptized with the baptism that I am baptized with?"  39 They replied, "We are able." Then Jesus said to them, "The cup that I drink you will drink; and with the baptism with which I am baptized, you will be baptized;  40 but to sit at my right hand or at my left is not mine to grant, but it is for those for whom it has been prepared."
Mark 14:36   36 He said, "Abba, Father, for you all things are possible; remove this cup from me; yet, not what I want, but what you want."
Luke 22:42   "Father, if you are willing, remove this cup from me; yet, not my will but yours be done."
John 18:11  Jesus said to Peter, "Put your sword back into its sheath. Am I not to drink the cup that the Father has given me?"
No Cause, False Accusations
Psalm 69:4 More in number than the hairs of my head are those who hate me without cause; many are those who would destroy me, my enemies who accuse me falsely. What I did not steal must I now restore?



John 19:1-4  Then Pilate took Jesus and had him flogged2 And the soldiers wove a crown of thorns and put it on his head, and they dressed him in a purple robe.  3 They kept coming up to him, saying, "Hail, King of the Jews!" and striking him on the face4 Pilate went out again and said to them, "Look, I am bringing him out to you to let you know that I find no case against him."
Abandonment
Psalm 69:8  I have become a stranger to my kindred, an alien to my mother's children.



John 19:25-27  Meanwhile, standing near the cross of Jesus were his mother, and his mother's sister, Mary the wife of Clopas, and Mary Magdalene.  26 When Jesus saw his mother and the disciple whom he loved standing beside her, he said to his mother, "Woman, here is your son."  27 Then he said to the disciple, "Here is your mother." And from that hour the disciple took her into his own home.
Zeal for God’s House, Insults
Psalm 69:9  It is zeal for your house that has consumed me; the insults of those who insult you have fallen on me.



John 2:17  His disciples remembered that it was written, "Zeal for your house will consume me."
Vinegar to Drink
Ps. 69:21 They gave me poison for food, and for my thirst they gave me vinegar to drink.

Proverbs 31:6   6 Give strong drink to one who is perishing, and wine to those in bitter distress;

Exodus 12:21-22   21 Then Moses called all the elders of Israel and said to them, "Go, select lambs for your families, and slaughter the passover lamb.  22 Take a bunch of hyssop, dip it in the blood that is in the basin,
Matthew 27:34, 48  34 they offered him wine to drink, mixed with gall; but when he tasted it, he would not drink it….
48 At once one of them ran and got a sponge, filled it with sour wine, put it on a stick, and gave it to him to drink.
Mark 15:23  23 And they offered him wine mixed with myrrh; but he did not take it.
Mark 15:36   36 And someone ran, filled a sponge with sour wine, put it on a stick, and gave it to him to drink, saying, "Wait, let us see whether Elijah will come to take him down."
Luke 23:36  36 The soldiers also mocked him, coming up and offering him sour wine,
John 19:29  29 A jar full of sour wine was standing there. So they put a sponge full of the wine on a branch of hyssop and held it to his mouth.
Curse [vs. Forgiveness]
Psalm 69:27-28  Add guilt to their guilt; may they have no acquittal from you.  28 Let them be blotted out of the book of the living; let them not be enrolled among the righteous.


Luke 23:34   Then Jesus said, "Father, forgive them; for they do not know what they are doing." And they cast lots to divide his clothing.

God Promises Victory to David’s Lord
Psalm 110:1  The LORD says to my lord, "Sit at my right hand until I make your enemies your footstool."
Matthew 22:44-45  44 'The Lord said to my Lord, "Sit at my right hand, until I put your enemies under your feet" '?  45 If David thus calls him Lord, how can he be his son?"
Mark 12:36-37a   36 David himself, by the Holy Spirit, declared, 'The Lord said to my Lord, "Sit at my right hand, until I put your enemies under your feet."'  37 David himself calls him Lord; so how can he be his son?"
Luke 1:32   32 He will be great, and will be called the Son of the Most High, and the Lord God will give to him the throne of his ancestor David.
Luke 20:41-44  41 Then he said to them, "How can they say that the Messiah is David's son?  42 For David himself says in the book of Psalms, 'The Lord said to my Lord, "Sit at my right hand,  43 until I make your enemies your footstool."'  44 David thus calls him Lord; so how can he be his son?"
Acts 2:32-35  32 This Jesus God raised up, and of that all of us are witnesses.  33 Being therefore exalted at the right hand of God, and having received from the Father the promise of the Holy Spirit, he has poured out this that you both see and hear. 34 For David did not ascend into the heavens, but he himself says, 'The Lord said to my Lord, "Sit at my right hand,  35 until I make your enemies your footstool."'

Rejected Stone
Psalm 118:22-23, 25  22 The stone that the builders rejected has become the chief cornerstone.  23 This is the LORD's doing; it is marvelous in our eyes….




25 Save us, we beseech you, O LORD! O LORD, we beseech you, give us success!
Matthew 21:42 Jesus said to them, "Have you never read in the scriptures: 'The stone that the builders rejected has become the cornerstone; this was the Lord's doing, and it is amazing in our eyes'?


Mark 12:10-11   10 Have you not read this scripture: 'The stone that the builders rejected has become the cornerstone;  11 this was the Lord's doing, and it is amazing in our eyes'?"
Mark 8:31 Then he began to teach them that the Son of Man must undergo great suffering, and be rejected by the elders, the chief priests, and the scribes, and be killed, and after three days rise again.
Luke 20:17 But he looked at them and said, "What then does this text mean: 'The stone that the builders rejected has become the cornerstone'?
Acts 4:11-12 This Jesus is 'the stone that was rejected by you, the builders; it has become the cornerstone.'  12 There is salvation in no one else, for there is no other name under heaven given among mortals by which we must be saved."
Luke 9:22 saying, "The Son of Man must undergo great suffering, and be rejected by the elders, chief priests, and scribes, and be killed, and on the third day be raised."

Sacrifice of the Beloved Son
Genesis 22:2 He said, "Take your son, your only son Isaac, whom you love, and go to the land of Moriah, and offer him there as a burnt offering on one of the mountains that I shall show you."
Matthew 3:17  And a voice from heaven said, "This is my Son, the Beloved, with whom I am well pleased."
Matthew 17:5 While he was still speaking, suddenly a bright cloud overshadowed them, and from the cloud a voice said, "This is my Son, the Beloved; with him I am well pleased; listen to him!"
Mark 1:11 And a voice came from heaven, "You are my Son, the Beloved; with you I am well pleased."
Mark 9:7 Then a cloud overshadowed them, and from the cloud there came a voice, "This is my Son, the Beloved; listen to him!"
Mark 12:6  He had still one other, a beloved son. Finally he sent him to them, saying, 'They will respect my son.'
Luke 3:22  and the Holy Spirit descended upon him in bodily form like a dove. And a voice came from heaven, "You are my Son, the Beloved; with you I am well pleased."
Luke 20:13 Then the owner of the vineyard said, 'What shall I do? I will send my beloved son; perhaps they will respect him.'

Blessed is the One Who Comes in the Name of the LORD
Psalm 118:25-27   25 Save us, we beseech you, O LORD! O LORD, we beseech you, give us success!  26 Blessed is the one who comes in the name of the LORD. We bless you from the house of the LORD.  27 The LORD is God, and he has given us light. Bind the festal procession with branches, up to the horns of the altar.
Matthew 21:8-9   8 A very large crowd spread their cloaks on the road, and others cut branches from the trees and spread them on the road.  9 The crowds that went ahead of him and that followed were shouting, "Hosanna to the Son of David! Blessed is the one who comes in the name of the Lord! Hosanna in the highest heaven!"
Matthew 23:39 For I tell you, you will not see me again until you say, 'Blessed is the one who comes in the name of the Lord.'"
Mark 11:8-9   8 Many people spread their cloaks on the road, and others spread leafy branches that they had cut in the fields.  9 Then those who went ahead and those who followed were shouting, "Hosanna! Blessed is the one who comes in the name of the Lord!
Luke 13:34 - 14:1   34 Jerusalem, Jerusalem, the city that kills the prophets and stones those who are sent to it! How often have I desired to gather your children together as a hen gathers her brood under her wings, and you were not willing!  35 See, your house is left to you. And I tell you, you will not see me until the time comes when you say, 'Blessed is the one who comes in the name of the Lord.'"
Luke 19:38 saying, "Blessed is the king who comes in the name of the Lord! Peace in heaven, and glory in the highest heaven!"
John 12:13   13 So they took branches of palm trees and went out to meet him, shouting, "Hosanna! Blessed is the one who comes in the name of the Lord-- the King of Israel!"
Peace (Hallel Song)
Psalm 122   I Was glad when they said to me, "Let us go to the house of the LORD." 2 Our feet are standing Within your gates, O Jerusalem, 3 Jerusalem, that is built As a city that is compact together…. 6 Pray for the peace of Jerusalem: "May they prosper who love you. 7 "May peace be within your walls, And prosperity within your palaces." 8 For the sake of my brothers and my friends, I will now say, "May peace be within you." 9 For the sake of the house of the LORD our God I will seek your good.


Luke 19:37-38, 42   As he was now approaching the path down from the Mount of Olives, the whole multitude of the disciples began to praise God joyfully with a loud voice for all the deeds of power that they had seen,  38 saying, "Blessed is the king who comes in the name of the Lord! Peace in heaven, and glory in the highest heaven!"…. 42 saying, "If you, even you, had only recognized on this day the things that make for peace! But now they are hidden from your eyes.

Destruction
Jeremiah 26
R. Brown, Death of the Messiah, II, p. 1450: Cf. the narrative in Jer. 26: speaking from the Temple (v. 2), ‘the prophet’s warning against the Jerusalem Temple [v. 6, cf. Jer. 7.11 quoted in Mk. 11.17, par.], the assemblage of priests and prophets against him [v. 8], the participation of ‘all the people’ [v. 6] the warning that they would bring innocent blood on themselves [v. 15], and the contention that he ‘deserved’ death’ [vv. 8, 11]
Jeremiah 26:18  "Micah of Moresheth, who prophesied during the days of King Hezekiah of Judah, said to all the people of Judah: 'Thus says the LORD of hosts, Zion shall be plowed as a field; Jerusalem shall become a heap of ruins, and the mountain of the house a wooded height.'


Luke 19:43-44  43 Indeed, the days will come upon you, when your enemies will set up ramparts around you and surround you, and hem you in on every side.  44 They will crush you to the ground, you and your children within you, and they will not leave within you one stone upon another; because you did not recognize the time of your visitation from God."

Lifted Up
Numbers 21:9 So Moses made a serpent of bronze, and put it upon a pole; and whenever a serpent bit someone, that person would look at the serpent of bronze and live.
Wisdom 16:5-7   5 For when the terrible rage of wild animals came upon your people and they were being destroyed by the bites of writhing serpents, your wrath did not continue to the end;  6 they were troubled for a little while as a warning, and received a symbol of deliverance to remind them of your law's command.  7 For the one who turned toward it was saved, not by the thing that was beheld, but by you, the Savior of all.



John 3:14-15  
 14 And just as Moses lifted up the serpent in the wilderness, so must the Son of Man be lifted up,  15 that whoever believes in him may have eternal life.
Cursed on a Cross
Deuteronomy 21:22-23   22 When someone is convicted of a crime punishable by death and is executed, and you hang him on a tree,  23 his corpse must not remain all night upon the tree; you shall bury him that same day, for anyone hung on a tree is under God's curse. You must not defile the land that the LORD your God is giving you for possession.




Galatians 3:10 For all who rely on the works of the law are under a curse; for it is written, "Cursed is everyone who does not observe and obey all the things written in the book of the law."
King Betrayed, Flees up Mt. of Olives
2 Sam. 15:13-37; 17.23 [Narrative Parallels]
‘…after his trusted fiend and advisor Ahithophel (=Judas) had gone over to his enemy, David crossed the Kidron … and went to the Ascent of Olives … where he wept and prayed ….  David arranged for his followers not to suffer his fate but to go back to Jerusalem and wait for a future reunion…, while the unfaithful Ahithophel, seeing that his plan against David was unsuccessful, went home and hanged himself’ (R. Brown, Death of the Messiah, Vol. II, p. 1148).  Also, David says let God do to me what seems good to him  (vv. 25f—cf. ‘not my will’).  Ittai swears not to forsake David (vv. 21; cf. Peter).  David goes up the ascent of the Mt. of Olives, weeping (30).
See my parallels, separate table (below).
Gethsemane [on Mt. of Olives]; Jesus prays; Jesus is grieved.
Matthew 26:35  Peter said to him, "Even though I must die with you, I will not deny you." And so said all the disciples.
Matthew 26:42  ‘… your will be done.’
Matthew 26:46  Get up, let us be going. See, my betrayer is at hand."
Matthew 27:5b … and he went and hanged himself.
Mark 14:26  26 When they had sung the hymn, they went out to the Mount of Olives.

John 18:1 After Jesus had spoken these words, he went out with his disciples across the Kidron valley to a place where there was a garden, which he and his disciples entered.
None Lost
Psalm 34:22   22 The LORD redeems the life of his servants; none of those who take refuge in him will be condemned.
Jeremiah 31:10  10 Hear the word of the LORD, O nations, and declare it in the coastlands far away; say, "He who scattered Israel will gather him, and will keep him as a shepherd a flock."



John 18:8-9   8 Jesus answered, "I told you that I am he. So if you are looking for me, let these men go."  9 This was to fulfill the word that he had spoken, "I did not lose a single one of those whom you gave me."
Cf. John 17:12   While I was with them, I protected them in your name that you have given me. I guarded them, and not one of them was lost except the one destined to be lost, so that the scripture might be fulfilled.
Elijah
2 Kings 1:3 But the angel of the LORD said to Elijah the Tishbite, "Get up, go to meet the messengers of the king of Samaria, and say to them, 'Is it because there is no God in Israel that you are going to inquire of Baal-zebub, the god of Ekron?' …
2 Kings 1:8-10   8 They answered him, "A hairy man, with a leather belt around his waist." He said, "It is Elijah the Tishbite."  9 Then the king sent to him a captain of fifty with his fifty men. He went up to Elijah, who was sitting on the top of a hill, and said to him, "O man of God, the king says, 'Come down.'"  10 But Elijah answered the captain of fifty, "If I am a man of God, let fire come down from heaven and consume you and your fifty." Then fire came down from heaven, and consumed him and his fifty.
1 Kings 19:1-2  1Ahab told Jezebel all that Elijah had done, and how he had killed all the prophets with the sword.  2 Then Jezebel sent a messenger to Elijah, saying, "So may the gods do to me, and more also, if I do not make your life like the life of one of them by this time tomorrow."
Malachi 4:5  5 Lo, I will send you the prophet Elijah before the great and terrible day of the LORD comes.









Matthew 17: 12  but I tell you that Elijah has already come, and they did not recognize him, but they did to him whatever they pleased. So also the Son of Man is about to suffer at their hands."









Mark 9: 13 "But I say to you that Elijah has indeed come, and they did to him whatever they wished, just as it is written of him."
Luke 9:52-53 On their way they entered a village of the Samaritans to make ready for him;  53 but they did not receive him, because his face was set toward Jerusalem.
Luke 9:54  When his disciples James and John saw it, they said, "Lord, do you want us to command fire to come down from heaven and consume them?"

Chosen One
Isaiah 42:1  Here is my servant, whom I uphold, my chosen, in whom my soul delights; I have put my spirit upon him; he will bring forth justice to the nations.


Luke 23:35 And the people stood by, watching; but the leaders scoffed at him, saying, "He saved others; let him save himself if he is the Messiah of God, his chosen one!"

The Suffering Servant of God’s Grave with the Wicked
Isaiah 53:9, 12 They made his grave with the wicked and his tomb with the rich, although he had done no violence, and there was no deceit in his mouth….12and was numbered with the transgressors; yet he bore the sin of many, and made intercession for the transgressors.
Matthew 27:38 Then two bandits were crucified with him, one on his right and one on his left.
Matthew 27:57-58  57 When it was evening, there came a rich man from Arimathea, named Joseph, who was also a disciple of Jesus.  58 He went to Pilate and asked for the body of Jesus; then Pilate ordered it to be given to him.
Mark 9:12b How then is it written about the Son of Man, that he is to go through many sufferings and be treated with contempt?
Mark 15:27-28 27 They crucified two robbers with Him, one on His right and one on His left.
 28 And the Scripture was fulfilled which says, "And He was numbered with transgressors."
57 When it was evening, there came a rich man from Arimathea, named Joseph, who himself had also become a disciple of Jesus.
Mark 15:58
 58 This man went to Pilate and asked for the body of Jesus. Then Pilate ordered it to be given to him.
Luke 23:32-33 32 Two others also, who were criminals, were being led away to be put to death with Him.
 33 When they came to the place called The Skull, there they crucified Him and the criminals, one on the right and the other on the left.

Cf. Luke 23:50-52
John 19:18  There they crucified him, and with him two others, one on either side, with Jesus between them.

Cf. Jn. 19:38
Suffering Servant
Isaiah 50:6-7   6 I gave my back to those who struck me, and my cheeks to those who pulled out the beard; I did not hide my face from insult and spitting.  7 The Lord GOD helps me; therefore I have not been disgraced; therefore I have set my face like flint, and I know that I shall not be put to shame…

Isaiah 52:14  Just as there were many who were astonished at him-- so marred was his appearance, beyond human semblance, and his form beyond that of mortals—

Isaiah 53:4-5, 7  4 Surely he has borne our infirmities and carried our diseases; yet we accounted him stricken, struck down by God, and afflicted.  5 But he was wounded for our transgressions, crushed for our iniquities; upon him was the punishment that made us whole, and by his bruises we are healed. …  7 He was oppressed, and he was afflicted, yet he did not open his mouth; like a lamb that is led to the slaughter, and like a sheep that before its shearers is silent, so he did not open his mouth.
[Cf. Psalm 39:1-2  I said, "I will guard my ways that I may not sin with my tongue; I will keep a muzzle on my mouth as long as the wicked are in my presence."  2 I was silent and still; I held my peace to no avail; my distress grew worse,…]

Isaiah 53:10-12   10 Yet it was the will of the LORD to crush him with pain. When you make his life an offering for sin, he shall see his offspring, and shall prolong his days; through him the will of the LORD shall prosper.  11 Out of his anguish he shall see light; he shall find satisfaction through his knowledge. The righteous one, my servant, shall make many righteous, and he shall bear their iniquities.  12 Therefore I will allot him a portion with the great, and he shall divide the spoil with the strong; because he poured out himself to death, and was numbered with the transgressors; yet he bore the sin of many, and made intercession for the transgressors.
R. Brown, Death of the Messiah, II, p. 1449:
‘The theme of Jesus being given over (paradidonai), which is a favorite in the [Passion Narratives] …, reflects the theme of the Servant being given up in Isaiah 53.6, 12.’
p. 1449, n.13: ‘paradidomai for giving over (to enemies or death) also appears in Pss. 27.12; 118.18; 119.121; 140.9.  In the second of the three detailed Synoptic passion predictions …, Mark 9.31 has the Son of Man ‘given over into the hands of men …; the imagery of ‘the hand of’ (sinners, etc.) is found in Pss. 71.4; 97.10; 140.5.’
Cf. Mt. 20.18-19

Matthew 27:26-31   26 So he released Barabbas for them; and after flogging Jesus, he handed him over to be crucified.  27 Then the soldiers of the governor took Jesus into the governor's headquarters, and they gathered the whole cohort around him.  28 They stripped him and put a scarlet robe on him,  29 and after twisting some thorns into a crown, they put it on his head. They put a reed in his right hand and knelt before him and mocked him, saying, "Hail, King of the Jews!"  30 They spat on him, and took the reed and struck him on the head.  31 After mocking him, they stripped him of the robe and put his own clothes on him. Then they led him away to crucify him.

Matthew 8:17 This was to fulfill what had been spoken through the prophet Isaiah, "He took our infirmities and bore our diseases."
Matthew 20:28 just as the Son of Man came not to be served but to serve, and to give his life a ransom for many."
Matthew 26:28 for this is my blood of the covenant, which is poured out for many for the forgiveness of sins.
Matthew 27:38 Then two bandits were crucified with him, one on his right and one on his left.
Mark 10:33-34  "See, we are going up to Jerusalem, and the Son of Man will be handed over to the chief priests and the scribes, and they will condemn him to death; then they will hand him over to the Gentiles;  34 they will mock him, and spit upon him, and flog him, and kill him; and after three days he will rise again."

Mark 14:65 Some began to spit on him, to blindfold him, and to strike him, saying to him, "Prophesy!" The guards also took him over and beat him.

Mark 15:15-19   15 So Pilate, wishing to satisfy the crowd, released Barabbas for them; and after flogging Jesus, he handed him over to be crucified.  16 Then the soldiers led him into the courtyard of the palace (that is, the governor's headquarters); and they called together the whole cohort.  17 And they clothed him in a purple cloak; and after twisting some thorns into a crown, they put it on him.  18 And they began saluting him, "Hail, King of the Jews!"  19 They struck his head with a reed, spat upon him, and knelt down in homage to him.

Mark 10:45 For the Son of Man came not to be served but to serve, and to give his life a ransom for many."
Mark 15:27 And with him they crucified two bandits, one on his right and one on his left.
Luke 18.32-33  32 "For He will be handed over to the Gentiles, and will be mocked and mistreated and spit upon,
 33 and after they have scourged Him, they will kill Him; and the third day He will rise again."

Luke 22:37 For I tell you, this scripture must be fulfilled in me, 'And he was counted among the lawless'; and indeed what is written about me is being fulfilled."

Luke 22:63-64   63 Now the men who were holding Jesus began to mock him and beat him;  64 they also blindfolded him and kept asking him, "Prophesy! Who is it that struck you?"
Luke 23:9  He questioned him at some length, but Jesus gave him no answer.
Acts 3:14-15  14 But you rejected the Holy and Righteous One and asked to have a murderer given to you,  15 and you killed the Author of life, whom God raised from the dead. To this we are witnesses.

Acts 8:32-33   32 Now the passage of the scripture that he [the Ethiopian eunuch] was reading was this: "Like a sheep he was led to the slaughter, and like a lamb silent before its shearer, so he does not open his mouth.  33 In his humiliation justice was denied him. Who can describe his generation? For his life is taken away from the earth."

Acts 10:43 All the prophets testify about him that everyone who believes in him receives forgiveness of sins through his name."
Luke 23:11  Even Herod with his soldiers treated him with contempt and mocked him; then he put an elegant robe on him, and sent him back to Pilate.

John 19:1-3
1 Pilate then took Jesus and scourged Him. 2 And the soldiers twisted together a crown of thorns and put it on His head, and put a purple robe on Him; 3 and they began to come up to Him and say, "Hail, King of the Jews!" and to give Him slaps in the face.

John 19:9 He entered his headquarters again and asked Jesus, "Where are you from?" But Jesus gave him no answer.

[John 18:22-23  22 When he had said this, one of the police standing nearby struck Jesus on the face, saying, "Is that how you answer the high priest?"  23 Jesus answered, "If I have spoken wrongly, testify to the wrong. But if I have spoken rightly, why do you strike me?"]

John 19:18 There they crucified him, and with him two others, one on either side, with Jesus between them.

John 19:16  So he delivered (pare,dwken) him over to them to be crucified. So they took Jesus,
Judas’ Silver and Field, Betrayal, Replacement
Zechariah 11:12-13   12 I then said to them, "If it seems right to you, give me my wages; but if not, keep them." So they weighed out as my wages thirty shekels of silver.  13 Then the LORD said to me, "Throw it into the treasury"-- this lordly price at which I was valued by them. So I took the thirty shekels of silver and threw them into the treasury in the house of the LORD.

[Jeremiah 19 is a word of judgement, 32 a word of hope]

Jeremiah 19:1-2  Thus said the LORD: Go and buy a potter's earthenware jug. Take with you some of the elders of the people and some of the senior priests,  2 and go out to the valley of the son of Hinnom at the entry of the Potsherd Gate, and proclaim there the words that I tell you.

Jeremiah 32:9 And I bought the field at Anathoth from my cousin Hanamel, and weighed out the money to him, seventeen shekels of silver.

Deuteronomy 27:25  "Cursed be anyone who takes a bribe to shed innocent blood." All the people shall say, "Amen!"

Psalm 41:9 Even my bosom friend in whom I trusted, who ate of my bread, has lifted the heel against me.

Psalm 55:12-14  12 It is not enemies who taunt me-- I could bear that; it is not adversaries who deal insolently with me-- I could hide from them.  13 But it is you, my equal, my companion, my familiar friend,  14 with whom I kept pleasant company; we walked in the house of God with the throng.

Acts 1:20 combines:
Psalm 69:25  May their camp be a desolation; let no one live in their tents.
Psalm 109:8 May his days be few; may another seize his position.
Matthew 27:3-10  3 When Judas, his betrayer, saw that Jesus was condemned, he repented and brought back the thirty pieces of silver to the chief priests and the elders.  4 He said, "I have sinned by betraying innocent blood." But they said, "What is that to us? See to it yourself."  5 Throwing down the pieces of silver in the temple, he departed; and he went and hanged himself.  6 But the chief priests, taking the pieces of silver, said, "It is not lawful to put them into the treasury, since they are blood money."  7 After conferring together, they used them to buy the potter's field as a place to bury foreigners.  8 For this reason that field has been called the Field of Blood to this day.    9 Then was fulfilled what had been spoken through the prophet Jeremiah, "And they took the thirty pieces of silver, the price of the one on whom a price had been set, on whom some of the people of Israel had set a price,  10 and they gave them for the potter's field, as the Lord commanded me."



Acts 1:16-20   16 "Friends, the scripture had to be fulfilled, which the Holy Spirit through David foretold concerning Judas, who became a guide for those who arrested Jesus--  17 for he was numbered among us and was allotted his share in this ministry."  18 (Now this man acquired a field with the reward of his wickedness; and falling headlong, he burst open in the middle and all his bowels gushed out.  19 This became known to all the residents of Jerusalem, so that the field was called in their language Hakeldama, that is, Field of Blood.)  20 "For it is written in the book of Psalms, 'Let his homestead become desolate, and let there be no one to live in it'; and 'Let another take his position of overseer.'

The Blind and the Lame (Healing, Humility, Redemption)
Jeremiah 31:8  See, I am going to bring them from the land of the north, and gather them from the farthest parts of the earth, among them the blind and the lame, those with child and those in labor, together; a great company, they shall return here.
Micah 4:6-7  In that day, says the LORD, I will assemble the lame and gather those who have been driven away, and those whom I have afflicted.  7 The lame I will make the remnant, and those who were cast off, a strong nation; and the LORD will reign over them in Mount Zion now and forevermore.
Zephaniah 3:19   I will deal with all your oppressors at that time. And I will save the lame and gather the outcast, and I will change their shame into praise and renown in all the earth.
Exlusion from temple service: Leviticus 21:18   For no one who has a blemish shall draw near, one who is blind or lame, or one who has a mutilated face or a limb too long,
Cf. inclusion of foreigners and eunuchs in Isaiah 56 (which Jesus quotes, v. 7, in Mt. 21.13; Mk. 11.17; Lk. 19.46)
Matthew 21:14  The blind and the lame came to him in the temple, and he cured them.



Jeremiah 31:31   The days are surely coming, says the LORD, when I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel and the house of Judah.

Isaiah 53:12 yet he bore the sin of many,…
Matthew 26:28  for this is my blood of the covenant, which is poured out for many for the forgiveness of sins.
Mark 14:24 He said to them, "This is my blood of the covenant, which is poured out for many.
Luke 22:20 And he did the same with the cup after supper, saying, "This cup that is poured out for you is the new covenant in my blood.

1 Corinthians 11:25  In the same way he took the cup also, after supper, saying, "This cup is the new covenant in my blood. Do this, as often as you drink it, in remembrance of me."

2 Corinthians 3:6 who has made us competent to be ministers of a new covenant, not of letter but of spirit; for the letter kills, but the Spirit gives life.

Hebrews 8:8-13 Hebrews 8:8  God finds fault with them when he says: "The days are surely coming, says the Lord, when I will establish a new covenant with the house of Israel and with the house of Judah; etc.

Also Heb. 9:15; 12:24

Lamentations 3:26-30   26 It is good that one should wait quietly for the salvation of the LORD.  27 It is good for one to bear the yoke in youth,  28 to sit alone in silence when the Lord has imposed it,  29 to put one's mouth to the dust (there may yet be hope),  30 to give one's cheek to the smiter, and be filled with insults.


Luke 22:63-65   63 Now the men who were holding Jesus began to mock him and beat him;  64 they also blindfolded him and kept asking him, "Prophesy! Who is it that struck you?"  65 They kept heaping many other insults on him.


Ezekiel 37:9, 12-14   Then he said to me, "Prophesy to the breath, prophesy, mortal, and say to the breath: Thus says the Lord GOD: Come from the four winds, O breath, and breathe upon these slain, that they may live." …  12 Therefore prophesy, and say to them, Thus says the Lord GOD: I am going to open your graves, and bring you up from your graves, O my people; and I will bring you back to the land of Israel.  13 And you shall know that I am the LORD, when I open your graves, and bring you up from your graves, O my people.  14 I will put my spirit within you, and you shall live, and I will place you on your own soil; then you shall know that I, the LORD, have spoken and will act, says the LORD."
Matthew 27:51-54   51 At that moment the curtain of the temple was torn in two, from top to bottom. The earth shook, and the rocks were split.  52 The tombs also were opened, and many bodies of the saints who had fallen asleep were raised.  53 After his resurrection they came out of the tombs and entered the holy city and appeared to many.  54 Now when the centurion and those with him, who were keeping watch over Jesus, saw the earthquake and what took place, they were terrified and said, "Truly this man was God's Son!"


John 20:22  When he had said this, he breathed on them and said to them, "Receive the Holy Spirit.
Amos 8:9, 10b   9 On that day, says the Lord GOD, I will make the sun go down at noon, and darken the earth in broad daylight….10b I will make it like the mourning for an only son, and the end of it like a bitter day.
Matthew 27:455 From noon on, darkness came over the whole land until three in the afternoon.
Mark 15:33 When it was noon, darkness came over the whole land until three in the afternoon.


Hosea 10:8  The high places of Aven, the sin of Israel, shall be destroyed. Thorn and thistle shall grow up on their altars. They shall say to the mountains, Cover us, and to the hills, Fall on us.




Luke 23:30  Then they will begin to say to the mountains, 'Fall on us'; and to the hills, 'Cover us.'

Zechariah 9:11 As for you also, because of the blood of my covenant with you, I will set your prisoners free from the waterless pit.
Matthew 26:27-28   27 Then he took a cup, and after giving thanks he gave it to them, saying, "Drink from it, all of you;  28 for this is my blood of the covenant, which is poured out for many for the forgiveness of sins.
Mark 14:24  He said to them, "This is my blood of the covenant, which is poured out for many.
Luke 22:20  20 And he did the same with the cup after supper, saying, "This cup that is poured out for you is the new covenant in my blood.

Zechariah 13:7  "Awake, O sword, against my shepherd, against the man who is my associate," says the LORD of hosts. Strike the shepherd, that the sheep may be scattered; I will turn my hand against the little ones.
Matthew 26:31 Then Jesus said to them, "You will all become deserters because of me this night; for it is written, 'I will strike the shepherd, and the sheep of the flock will be scattered.'
Mark 14:27  And Jesus said to them, "You will all become deserters; for it is written, 'I will strike the shepherd, and the sheep will be scattered.'


Zechariah 6:11 Take the silver and gold and make a crown, and set it on the head of the high priest Joshua son of Jehozadak; 12 say to him: Thus says the LORD of hosts: Here is a man whose name is Branch: for he shall branch out in his place, and he shall build the temple of the LORD.
Matthew 27:28 They stripped Him and put a scarlet robe on Him. 29 And after twisting together a crown of thorns, they put it on His head, and a reed in His right hand; and they knelt down before Him and mocked Him, saying, "Hail, King of the Jews!"
Mark 15:17 They dressed Him up in purple, and after twisting a crown of thorns, they put it on Him; 18 and they began to acclaim Him, "Hail, King of the Jews!"

John 19:5 So Jesus came out, wearing the crown of thorns and the purple robe. Pilate said to them, "Here is the man!"
Zechariah 12:10  And I will pour out a spirit of compassion and supplication on the house of David and the inhabitants of Jerusalem, so that, when they look on the one whom they have pierced, they shall mourn for him, as one mourns for an only child, and weep bitterly over him, as one weeps over a firstborn.
[Cf. Ps. 22.16]





Luke 24:39-40  39 Look at my hands and my feet; see that it is I myself. Touch me and see; for a ghost does not have flesh and bones as you see that I have."  40 And when he had said this, he showed them his hands and his feet.
John 19:37  And again another passage of scripture says, "They will look on [eivj] the one whom they have pierced."

Parallels Between Jesus in Gethsemane (Matthew)
and David’s Flight from Absalom (2 Samuel)
Jesus says to his disciples in the garden of Gethsemane, ‘Get up, let us be going. See, my betrayer is at hand’ (Mt. 26.46).  Unlike David, he actually goes to meet his betrayer.
David says to all his officials who were with him in Jerusalem, ‘Get up!  Let us flee, or there will be no escape for us from Absalom.  Hurry, or he will soon overtake us…’ (2 Sam. 15.14)
Jesus leaves Jerusalem for Gethsemane on the Mt. of Olives (Mt. 26)
David leaves Jerusalem, goes to the Mt. of Olives, and continues beyond there (2 Sam. 15.30)
Jesus’ the Messianic King is under threat
David’s Kingdom is under threat
Judas has betrayed Jesus (26.25)
Absalom has betrayed David (16.11); David is told that Ahithophel is one of the conspirators (15.31)
Jesus is deeply grieved, even to death (Mt. 26.38)
David weeps (15.30)
Jesus takes the disciples who are with him along, asking them to ‘remain here with me’ (26.38)
David takes all the people who are with him along, and they weep with him (15.30)
Peter swears he will not desert Jesus (26.33)
Ittai swears he will not leave David (15.21)
Jesus puts himself in God’s hands.  He prays, "My Father, if it is possible, let this cup pass from me; yet not what I want but what you want" (26.39).
David puts himself in God’s hands: ‘But if he [God] says, 'I take no pleasure in you,' here I am, let him do to me what seems good to him" (15.26)
Judas goes with ‘a large crowd with swords and clubs’ to take Jesus (Mt. 26.47).  Or: Judas goes with a cohort (Jn. 18.3)
Ahithophel asks Absalom to allow him to take 12,000 men to go strike down only one man (David) (17.1-2)
Jesus separates himself from the disciples, taking only Peter and the two sons of Zebedee (Mt. 26.37).  He separates himself a little from them too (26.39).
Hushai counsels that David, an expert in war, will not spend the night among the troops so that he could be attacked (17.8)
Judas, whose advice was followed so that Jesus was arrested and condemned, repents and hangs himself (Mt. 27.5)
Ahithophel, who counseled Absalom differently from Hushai and was not heeded, went home, set his house in order, and hanged himself (17.23).  Also, Absalom hangs from a tree when his hair gets caught in it, and Joab kills him (18.9, 14)
One with Jesus drew his sword and took off the ear of the slave of the high priest, but Jesus stops the violence (26.51-53)
Abishai wants to take off Shimei’s head for his cursing and throwing stones at David, but David stops him (16.9-12)





[1] The texts quoted here do not link the exaltation of Jesus to the Old Testament, but Jesus’ exaltation after his resurrection to heavenly rule, too, was seen in terms of the Old Testament.  Passages referring to Jesus’ coming on the clouds with heavenly authority, as the one like a son of man in Dn. 7, relate to Jesus’ heavenly rule as Lord, his exaltation to heaven, and/or his second coming (Acts 1.9-11; Mk. 14.62//Mt. 26.64//Lk. 22.69).  Ps. 110.1, referring to Jesus’ exaltation to God’s right hand over the nations and to his divine rule was understood in reference to Jesus’ exaltation (Mk. 12.36//Mt. 22.44//Lk. 20.42; Acts 2.33-34; 7.55-56; Rom. 8.34; Ephesians 1.20-23; Col. 3.1; Heb. 1.3; 8.1; 10.12-13; 12.2; 1 Pt. 3.21-22; cf. Rev. 5).
[2] Interpreters might also give attention to some apocryphal writings from second Temple Judaism that were known to the early Church.  Wisdom 2.7-20 is an intriguing text to consider, e.g., Wisdom 2:7-20 (NRSV): 7 Let us take our fill of costly wine and perfumes, and let no flower of spring pass us by.  8 Let us crown ourselves with rosebuds before they wither.  9 Let none of us fail to share in our revelry; everywhere let us leave signs of enjoyment, because this is our portion, and this our lot.  10 Let us oppress the righteous poor man; let us not spare the widow or regard the gray hairs of the aged.  11 But let our might be our law of right, for what is weak proves itself to be useless.  12 "Let us lie in wait for the righteous man, because he is inconvenient to us and opposes our actions; he reproaches us for sins against the law, and accuses us of sins against our training.  13 He professes to have knowledge of God, and calls himself a child of the Lord.  14 He became to us a reproof of our thoughts;  15 the very sight of him is a burden to us, because his manner of life is unlike that of others, and his ways are strange.  16 We are considered by him as something base, and he avoids our ways as unclean; he calls the last end of the righteous happy, and boasts that God is his father.  17 Let us see if his words are true, and let us test what will happen at the end of his life;  18 for if the righteous man is God's child, he will help him, and will deliver him from the hand of his adversaries.  19 Let us test him with insult and torture, so that we may find out how gentle he is, and make trial of his forbearance.  20 Let us condemn him to a shameful death, for, according to what he says, he will be protected."
[3] The following work reflects independent research, helped to some degree by insights from R. Brown’s The Death of the Messiah, Vols. 1-2 (New York: Doubleday, 1994).  See bibliography in Brown, pp. 1465-1467.